This is the first of a four part series that I'll be unveiling over the next few months, each focusing on a different aspect of L.A.
rap's sweep. As I noted earlier, an excellent DJ Quik show
last week inspired me to put this together (to give credit where it's due). I'm no expert on the subject, but I've lived with this music since it was first coming out and it has continued to inform my listening habits in myriad ways through the years. After all, coming up in this era, with this music and parallel sounds from near and far providing the sonic atmosphere of the day, can have a profound effect on somebody...
As early as the late '70s, Uncle Jamm's Army
and The Egyptian Lover
were developing the earliest foundations of a distinct West Coast
style that would culminate in prime L.A.
electro like Egypt, Egypt
in the early 80s. Within a few years, pioneers like Ice-T
and Oakland's Too $hort
began carving out a harder, street-level aesthetic that gradually began to supplant electro's popularity. Then, a crew called N.W.A.
entered the Audio Achievements
studio in Torrance, CA
and started putting out records on their own Ruthless Records
imprint, culminating in the seismic impact of their debut album Straight Outta Compton
The five years between Straight Outta Compton
and The Chronic
were probably the most important stretch in the development of a distinctive West Coast
sound, spanning the transition from N.W.A.
's hard, skeletal beats to Dr. Dre
's fluid g-funk. This period was marked by extraordinary innovation, with a monumental soundclash of ideas and influences that would gradually be synthesized into a whole new thing. The following 14 records were all released within this timeframe, are undeniably classic material and trace this rough path of progression from Compton
to The Chronic
N.W.A. - Straight Outta Compton
Ground zero. The earlier N.W.A. And The Posse
record was but a preview of things to come, pulling early singles and some hastily recorded material into one package. This is the true arrival. I was in elementary school when this record dropped, and by the end of the year everyone
seemed to be talking about it. That's the level it got to. The influence of this record cannot be overstated (just compare the first Geto Boys
album with the second, for one obvious example). It kicked open the door for everything that follows in this list.
The opening three tracks - Straight Outta Compton
, Fuck Tha Police
and Gangsta Gangsta
- form one of the great opening salvos of all time, a pump-action barrage of street-level imagery delivered with a brutal intensity. For the purposes of this discussion, Gangsta Gangsta
seems to be Dre
's first stab at what would one day be called g-funk (check that rude Funky Worm
synth whine coming in after the Way back...
part). It's still too raw, the beats too rugged, to be considered g-funk proper, but the ingredients are all there just waiting to marinate a little longer.
There seems to be a bit of historical revisionism at the moment about this record, claiming that the opening three tracks are the only real substance it has to offer. Not true. The Dopeman (Remix)
is an incisive look at the drug trade with a barely concealed rage bubbling beneath the surface, matching the fury of that opening rush, while tracks like 8 Ball (Remix)
, Parental Discretion Iz Advised
and MC Ren
's Quiet On Tha Set
serve to further flesh out the world that this record inhabits. Express Yourself
's solo shot) and I Ain't Tha 1
's requisite battle of the sexes rumble) both offer moments of levity, while Something Like That
is a pure old school throwback showcase. Something 2 Dance 2
even closes things down with an electrofunk workout featuring the legendary Arabian Prince
. They really did think of everything!
Eazy-E - Eazy-Duz-It
Released nearly simultaneously with Straight Outta Compton
, and at the time taken more or less as a companion piece to that record. They'd usually be listened to side by side. Releasing the follow up so quickly on the heels of Compton
was a shrewd move in retrospect. People were hungry for more.
This LP picks up where 8 Ball
left off. A reckless ride through the wild side of the Ruthless
funhouse, this party careens drunkenly through through the streets of L.A.
with audacious Eazy-E
acting as your unhinged tour guide. The Prelude
recalls the sort of conceptual interlude Parliament
specialized in, setting the tone for a particular sort of skit that would become an integral part of the landscape on West Coast
had its share of hard, skeletal beats, the production feels slightly more fleshed out this time around (the Boyz-N-The Hood (Remix)
notwithstanding). DJ Yella
even gets in his first appearance behind the drumkit on 2 Hard Mutha's
, an engaging sound that the group would engage in sporadically to fine effect. Even if Eazy-Duz-It
doesn't hit with quite the same force as Straight Outta Compton
, its incrementally looser rhythms and balanced sequencing do point the way toward the nineties.
Low Profile - We're In This Together
The first record in this list to come from outside the N.W.A.
organization, this is a collaboration between West Coast
and DJ Aladdin
. Low Profile
made their first appearance on the previous year's Rhyme Syndicate Comin' Through
compilation with the show-stealing Think You Can Hang?
. That track isn't here, but this phenomenal record expands on its foundation. From W.C.
's deft, conscious microphone delivery to DJ Aladdin
's loose, fleshed out production and devastating turntable skills, this is truly advanced technology for '89.
This is something of a conscious flipside of the coin to a lot of the game related platters listed here. I've often felt that this is something of a West Coast
counterpart to Gang Starr
's Step In The Arena
. An off the wall comparison, perhaps, but I couldn't resist making it! Keep Em Flowin'
even sounds like a Jazzmatazz
beat! Just listen to How Ya Livin'
back to back with Step In The Arena
(the track) and tell me I'm crazy. Of course, We're In This Together
came out a whole year earlier...
None of the records here are obscure, but for the longest time this one was incredibly hard to come by. You'd hear it whispered about by people in the know (it had a fearsome reputation as a lost classic), but you'd never see it in the shops. It was actually easier to track down on wax, along with the accompanying 12" singles. Well, Universal Japan
has just stepped in with their Classic Hip Hop Best Collection 1000
reissue program, featuring this record among their first brace of releases. Don't sleep!
The D.O.C. - No One Can Do It Better
's secret weapon. Starting out as a member of the Ruthless
-affiliated Fila Fresh Crew
, the Dallas
native set out for L.A.
where he ghost-wrote some of N.W.A.
's rhymes behind the scenes. Here, he gets his chance to shine. Portrait Of A Master Piece
is a literally breathtaking fast-forward deluge showcasing the state-of-the-art flow of one of the great uptempo lyrical stylists. Through the entirety of this sterling LP, The D.O.C.
's mic skills are top notch.
This album catches Dr. Dre
treating Audio Achievements
as his own personal laboratory, further elaborating the sound of the previous records into a high-octane formula that he would continue to tweak over the next couple years. With a few exceptions, the drums are tighter and more compact (as opposed to the booming big beat of the earlier records), while the production has become more crisp and the rhythms increasingly fluid, with a greater emphasis on live musicians (not to mention further welcome appearances by Yella
behind the kit).
, Let The Bass Go
and the title track are the first attempts at chilling out the Ruthless
sound, slowing the tempos and cooling out the atmosphere in the process: an important step on the road to g-funk's genesis. These tracks themselves aren't g-funk per se, but the production is certainly starting to move further in that direction. The closing track, The Grande Finalé
is a stunning posse cut, featuring the entirety of the original N.W.A.
rhyming over a tremendous build up (pinned down by another ace breakbeat from Yella
). If I'm not mistaken, this is the last time the original group would all be heard together on record.
Arabian Prince - Brother Arab
Oldskool renegade from the N.W.A.
posse strikes out solo. The Arabian Prince
actually had a history stretching back much further than the rest of the group, operating as a contemporary of The Egyptian Lover
in the era of Uncle Jamm's Army
, and consequently, much of this record is built on a heavy electro undercarriage. That's no bad thing, since Brother Arab
is right at home in the form. This is a fascinating sound that he cooks up here, existing midway between his earlier records like Strange Life
, It Ain't Tough
and the sounds Dre
essayed on The D.O.C.
album. Gettin' Down
even locks a loping blues guitar loop into a hypnotic groove with planet rocking 808
However, the exceptions to the rule might be even even more compelling. Let The Good Times Roll (Nickel Bag)
, a murky downbeat number built on an ever-tumbling breakbeat, is a fabulous bit of hip hop noir, while She's Got A Big Posse
, the album's biggest single, rides a Zapp
-esque bounce that totally prefigures the classic g-funk sound. To my mind, one of the crucial elements of g-funk is the linear quality of its groove, stretching horizontally into infinity (as opposed to hip hop's usual vertically arranged change-ups). What's missing here is the greater emphasis on live musicianship and those whining sinewave synths, but the groove is definitely in the same ballpark. Still not textbook g-funk, but certainly strong enough shades in evidence to warrant a proto-
Above The Law - Livin' Like Hustlers
This one's a giant step forward. Dr. Dre
had a hand in producing this LP for these Ruthless
proteges. Above The Law
introduce a rolling, cinematic sweep to this music, evoking OSTs like Shaft
and Truck Turner
in its widescreen sensibility. Menace To Society
is essentially a gangster film in miniature, while Murder Rap
samples Quincy Jones
theme, establishing an intense, maddening atmosphere.
Another key development is the fact that ATL
often operates on a laidback tip, as on Flow On (Move Me No Mountain)
and Another Execution
. Even on the uptempo numbers, they bring a nonchalant gangster lean to this material that would become a crucial element of the g-funk equation. N.W.A.
even makes a cameo on The Last Song
, certainly the most leisurely beat they'd yet been involved with.
's Cold 187um
later claimed to have invented the g-funk sound (developing it further on the following year's Vocally Pimpin'
EP), influencing Dre
in the process. Whatever the veracity of those claims, it's clear that this is the next step in the evolution, whether instigated by Above The Law
or Dr. Dre
(or both). The crew continued to hit hard on their second LP, Black Mafia Life
, an excellent follow up that exists just outside the timeframe of this list: although it was completed before The Chronic
, it wasn't released until early '93.
N.W.A. - 100 Miles And Runnin'
I've included three major N.W.A.
records here, so crucial are they to the L.A.
story. There's just no getting around their centrality. This EP was released on the heels of Ice Cube
's AmeriKKKa's Most Wanted
, and the title track seems to take on aspects of that record's monster production by The Bomb Squad
. A widescreen epic running at a breakneck pace, it finds Dre
splitting the difference between those uptempo D.O.C.
tracks and Above The Law
's cinematic sweep.
This EP also marks the beginning of the group's descent into pure nastiness, with Just Don't Bite It
's lush production backing the sort of off-color humor that would really come to the fore on the following record. Still, Dre
's production finesse is continuing to develop at a staggering rate. The intricate breakbeat rhythm of Real Niggaz
and Sa Prize (Part 2)
's liquid groove both demonstrate the new forms that were materializing at Audio Achievements
. If there were a symbolic midpoint between Straight Outta Compton
and The Chronic
, then this must be it.
WC And The Maad Circle - Ain't A Damn Thang Changed
again! Another Texan transplant (a bit of a pattern here), WC
was always on his own level with a sort of street-level consciousness that always managed to sidestep preachiness and never failed to carry a fatal sting. This record finds The Maad Circle
in its prime, with Coolio
still in the fold (Fantastic Voyage
and Gangsta's Paradise
still a few years off), a steadfast Big Gee
in evidence and kaleidoscopic production from Crazy Toones
, Sir Jinx
It's tempting to read this LP as a bracingly aggressive, West Coast
gangsta take on Marvin Gaye
's What's Going On
, so all-encompassing is its scope. With eagle eye observation and insight, tracks such as Fuck My Daddy
(a rumination on the destructive impact of an abusive, no good, two-timing father) and Behind Closed Doors
(a scathing indictment of police brutality - especially relevant in light of current events) tackle societal troubles head on and fill the corners of this LP with a richly detailed chronicle of life in south central L.A.
would later hook up with Ice Cube
and Mack 10
in supergroup Westside Connection
, finally receiving widespread recognition and going double-platinum in the process. However, this and the Low Profile
record remain absolutely essential listening, together offering a crucial glimpse into the man's unique breadth of vision. Both LPs certainly belong in any serious conversation about the best albums (hip hop or otherwise) to come out of L.A.
Ice Cube - Kill At Will
blazed a fierce trail through the early nineties, starting with his Bomb Squad
produced debut, AmeriKKKa's Most Wanted
, and running through Death Certificate
and The Predator
at a blistering pace of one album every year - BAM BAM BAM! - and all within the timeframe of this list. The Kill At Will
EP, released just after his debut, is my absolute favorite record of his. As a matter of fact, this just
missed inclusion in The Parallax 100
(a decision that still keeps me up at night).
Building on the sonic foundation of The Bomb Squad
's work, this EP's masterful beat construction - by Sir Jinx
, Chilly Chill
and Ice Cube
himself behind the boards - result in some of his absolute finest moments. The Product
is a searing avalanche of fury, and one of the hardest hip hop tracks ever conceived (in both form and content). Cube
weaves like a boxer through this densely-populated sonic matrix, chronicling the unforgiving circumstances that conspire to drag a young brother under, all while riding a jagged, amped up breakbeat. Jackin' For Beats
showcases a rotating selection of hype rhythm tracks, switching them up rapid fire beneath one of the fiercest flows in the business.
is the flipside of the coin, with Cube
reflecting on the mortality of himself and everyone around him over his own moody, half-lit downbeat production. There's a barely concealed desperation that creeps in through the cracks here, adding further context to the record's hardest moments. In just over twenty minutes, this EP runs the spectrum from rage to sorrow in an uncompromising vision of the world.
Ice-T - O.G. Original Gangster
As mentioned earlier, Ice-T
looms large over L.A.
hip hop, seemingly coming out of nowhere improbably early to lay the groundwork for the whole operation. Despite his comfortable niche with Law And Order
nowadays, he deserves non-stop props for his trailblazing work as an innovator on the West Coast
. His first three LPs are all crucial records, each providing an evolutionary step forward in development. O.G. Original Gangster
finds him taking this sound into the nineties, moving with the times into an ever-funkier direction.
This is a sprawling double-LP that paradoxically finds Ice-T
tightening his game. It sits comfortably with the surrounding records in this list, taking in some of their aspects even as it expands on them with a nearly unmatched breadth of vision. DJ Aladdin
produces a handful of tracks here, including the awesome New Jack Hustler
(originally appearing - along with Ice-T
himself - in the excellent film New Jack City
). The production is some of the loosest around, beats swerving and diving with a nimble touch, and often running at lightning speed. Ice-T
is razor sharp on the mic, as usual, dropping gems left and right (I'm raised like a pit bull, my heart pumps nitro
). Even the interludes are unforgettable.
N.W.A. - Efil4zaggin
The final N.W.A.
album is a production tour de force. The beats on this record are simply phenomenal, taking the developments of 100 Miles And Runnin'
to their logical conclusion. Dre
's production arguably reaches its pinnacle of elegance here, weaving intricate tapestries of lush texture through sticky funk basslines and crisply executed breakbeats, resulting in one of the most compelling sounds in rap music (or any other, for that matter).
Rock hard tracks like Approach To Danger
and Real Niggaz Don't Die
even as they transcend it, improbably revealing a turn-on-a-dime agility beneath their monumental heaviness. Both tracks are shot through with an unresolved tension that reaches its apex in the frenetic roll of Appetite For Destruction
. Stretching even further toward the future, Alwayz Into Somethin'
- laidback, cooled out and boasting those whining sinewave synths - is generally considered to be the first true g-funk tune to hit the shops.
Despite sagging into a mid-record sequence where the blue humor gets out of hand and veers into the intentionally offensive, the production remains top-notch throughout the entirety of this LP. In fact, it would easily stand on its own as an instrumental record. Dr. Dre
would leave N.W.A.
within the year, the group dissolving shortly after into solo careers, concluding one of the most impressive winning streaks in hip hop and quitting at the top of their game. For further reading, this excellent L.A. Times
article is essential reading for anyone remotely interested in the N.W.A.
DJ Quik - Quik Is The Name
This is an unabashed party record, featuring a handful of uptempo numbers (reaching their frenetic peak in Tear It Off
) but generally easing back into a first-rate selection of West Coast bounce. DJ Quik
had the linear g-funk thang down from the word go, spooling deep, funky grooves out into infinity. Part of Quik
's appeal is the fact his sound seems to spring directly from the old school electrofunk sound of One Way
, transforming that sound into something that could weather the '90s.
Speaking of Kleeer
, Quik Is The Name
features an interpolation of their immortal Tonight
in the rolling, endless Tonite
, surely a textbook example of g-funk proper that prefigures the sound writ large on both The Chronic
. These moves continue in 8 Ball
and permeate the entirety of this thoroughly loose LP. Quik's Groove
, a gentle instrumental, lets the beats speak for themselves and betray Quik
's love of pure electric funk.
The closing Skanless
is an engaging slice of slow-motion downbeat featuring AMG
and 2nd II None
, seemingly hewn from a longer marathon groove. In 1991, DJ Quik
was also involved with Hi-C
's Bitch Betta Have My Money
, the latter of which is an even looser, albeit less consistent, loony cousin to this record's non-stop party moves. The other day, I forgot to mention this video
, an amusing interview with DJ Quik
at Amoeba Records, and this seems as good a time as any to get in a mention.
Compton's Most Wanted - Straight Checkn 'Em
It's difficult to choose the best CMW
record. The outfit's first three albums, released in quick succession - one a year - starting in 1990, all have their strong points to recommend them. I tend to go back and forth. This one - their second - stands out for its loping downbeat rhythms and desolate atmosphere, what Peter Shapiro
brilliantly referred to as DJ Slip
's dark jazz
. MC Chill
was sentenced to prison between the release of CMW
's debut - It's A Compton Thang
- and the sessions for Straight Checkn 'Em
, leaving MC Eiht
as the solitary vocal presence, further cementing the prevailing mood of downcast isolation in evidence throughout.
and The Unknown DJ
behind the mixing desk, the approach here seems to prefigure Dre
's for the epochal Deep Cover
(even if nothing here hits quite as hard as that
tune). There's a casual fatalism to tracks like Def Wish
and Growin' Up In The Hood
that mark this LP out as a tour de force of gangsta-noir. Can I Kill It?
even slips into the classic Footsteps In The Dark
beat a whole year before Ice Cube
would use it as the basis for his immortal It Was A Good Day
. Indeed, whole sections of this record predict not only the sound of hip hop's eventual descent into darkness, but even seem to raise the spectre of trip hop's twisted methodology.
Dr. Dre - The Chronic
(Death Row: 1992)
Ready to leave N.W.A.
and strike out on his own, Dr. Dre
formed Death Row Records
with Suge Knight
and The D.O.C.
, kicking off the next chapter of the L.A.
's first solo record was Deep Cover
(from the soundtrack to film of the same name), featuring vocals from a then-unknown Snoop Doggy Dogg
. A Death Row
release in all but name - it technically came out on Solar
- Deep Cover
was the first warning shot of things to come on Dre
's full-length debut.
's off the wall personality inhabits
this record. Tracks like Rat-Tat-Tat-Tat
and The Day The Niggaz Took Over
continue to develop the dread atmosphere of Deep Cover
, yet that's only the tip of the iceberg. The Chronic
is where Dre
nails down g-funk as a formula, utilizing live musicians to create rolling epics such as Fuck Wit Dre Day
and Nuthin' But A "G" Thang
. It's important to note the importance of Dre
's earlier experiments with smoother, more r&b-based material on his productions for artists like Michel'Le
and Jimmy Z
in developing the clean, polished sounds of The Chronic
. The sun-glazed vibes of a track like Let Me Ride
seem to flow directly from those smooth sonics.
Built on a sizeable chunk of Parliament
's Mothership Connection
, Let Me Ride
is just one example of p-funk's totemic importance throughout this record. Indeed, George Clinton
interpolations are the order of the day here, cropping up all over the place. Between L.A.
's influence seemed to be everywhere
in the nineties. If you were aiming for the dancefloor - be it hip hop, r&b or techno - p-funk loomed large over the decade's excursions into rhythm.
Remaking hip hop in the image of earthshaking electric funk, The Chronic
changed the face of West Coast
rap and became its dominant sound for the foreseeable future. It's usually a stretch to put sea changes down to a single record, but this truly is a case where one record did provide that watershed moment. At the height of the sampladelic age, it opened rap up once again to the possibilities of both live playing and synthesized textures on the widest scale imaginable. As its sound quickly spread worldwide, reverberations began to be felt everywhere, and one could largely trace the direction hip hop has taken in the ensuing years back to this record. Much like Straight Outta Compton
before it, The Chronic
catalyzed a whole new thing into existence that had to be acknowledged one way or the other. The rest is history...